In species that reproduce sexually the relative vulnerability of the female during pregnancy, birth and motherhood is offset by chivalrous behaviour of males. In a modern society women need a great education and full choice of what they wish to accomplish in the lifetime, and that may or may not include motherhood. Yet because of this basic element in sexually reproducing species the society (males and females) will either become chivalrous (protective) of females or misogynistic/patriarchal. Thus both chivalry and misogyny/patriarchy become aspects of wider society directed at women yet carried out by both genders for personal gain.